Posted by jamesw on Tue 29 Aug 2006 at 09:19
Debian makes heavy use of it's bug-tracking system, (BTS) to coordinate work, and for developers to know that a problem needs fixing.
This article is aimed at those who haven't seen the BTS before, or know who have used it a little, but would like to know about how to manipulate bugs.
If you want to see what bugs have been reported to the BTS this is easy to do using the web interface. This is accessible at http://www.debian.org/Bugs/. If you go to this page you can see a form for searching the bug reports. The system is package based, so you can enter the name of a package and search for all bugs related to that package.
For example, enter
apt in to the search box, and make sure the
package option is selected just above it. Then click the
find button. This will then show the page with all of apt's bugs on it. You can click on any of the bug titles to see more information on the bug.
You can see that the bugs are divided up in to sections. These sections are based on the states that the bugs are in, and the severities that were assigned to them. This helps the maintainer of the package to see what needs doing, and to prioritise their work.
The states of the bugs are:
The severities are:
These are the severities that you will normally use. There are three more severities, and they have special meanings. They also get special treatment when they are not being fixed. You should only really report a bug at one of these severities if you understand what they mean. Don't worry though, if you report a bug that deserves to get one of these severities it will be upgraded.
Tags are used by developers to keep track of what is happening to the bugs. A full list is available at http://www.debian.org/Bugs/Developer#tags. Some of the most common ones you will see are:
Some of the other tags are either obvious (e.g. security) or are used more for tracking things across the distribution (e.g. ipv6).
If you find a bug that you would like to see fixed then you have to use the BTS to make the maintainer aware, and work with them to fix it. So to start off you need to report the bug.
Before you report it though there are a few things you need to do.
Work out what package the bug comes from.
Find if the bug has already been reported.
Gather as much information as possible. Ideally the report should contain:
Now you have all this information you are ready to report a bug. The preferred way to do this is to use the report bug program, so
# apt-get install reportbug
And the simply run
There are many options you can pass to reportbug (man reportbug will help you there), but reportbug will walk you through the steps needed to send the report.
So first you are asked for the name of the package that you wish to report a bug against.
Please enter the name of the package in which you have found a problem, or type 'other' to report a more general problem. >
Once you have entered the name of the package you will be shown the list of bug reports already filed against the package. Make sure your bug is not listed and continue. If it is listed then you can send more information (see below).
When you have checked the bug reports, you will be prompted for the subject of the bug report.
Please briefly describe your problem (you can elaborate in a moment; an empty response will stop reportbug). This should be a concise summary of what is wrong with the package, for example, "fails to send email" or "does not start with -q option specified." >
Some people like to start this with the name of the package (though it is not essential), e.g.
apt: does not download correct version of dpkg
You will then be prompted for the severity of your report. Select a number from the list that you think best applies. If you are unsure just hit
Enter and you will get the default
normal and the maintainer can change it if need be.
reportbug may then ask you if it can include some of your configuration files in the report. You should answer yes, unless the files contain sensitive information (e.g. passwords).
An editor will then be spawned for you to write you bug report. Fill in all the information that you found above, then save the file and close the editor.
You will then be shown the final menu
Report will be sent to "Debian Bug Tracking System" Submit this report on apt (e to edit) [y|n|a|c|E|i|l|m|p|q|?]?
There are many options here. Type ? to get a list. The interesting ones are
When you have finished choose y to send it (or if you require you can use the other options to send it your self). That is then it, you have submitted your first report.
You will receive a copy of the report straight away, and the confirmation from the BTS within the hour.
It is possible to report bugs via email as well if you want. Instructions are given at http://www.debian.org/Bugs/Reporting. Not using reportbug has the disadvantage that you must do more by yourself, as you don't have reportbug's checks, or automatic inclusion of some information.
If you wish to send more information to a bug report there are two ways to do it.
I wont describe the reportbug way in too much detail, as it provides you with help, and is similar to the procedure above.
To use report bug to send a followup to a bug start reportbug and enter the package name. Then when the list of bugs is displayed press
y, which will prompt for the bug number. You can then proceed as before. If you see the bug in the list it shows you enter the number from the left hand side, and reportbug will show you the bug report. If you enter x at the prompt then you will provide a follow-up to that bug.
To send information by email you just need to send an email to
email@example.com. The content of the email will then become part of the bug report.
Whichever method you use it is useful if you don't simply send an email like
Subject: Bug #12345 I am seeing this bug as well, can I help fixing it?
as, while it is good to offer your help, it requires anyone who receives that email (and the emails do go to a few places), to go and look up the bug. It would be better to send something like:
Subject: Re: Bug#13245: apt doesn't download correct version of dpkg I am also seeing this bug. I have tried giving the version on the command line to apt, but it still downloads version 1.2.3 of dpkg. Is there anything else I can do to help?
It says the same thing, but provides much more context to those who receive the email, so they can simply reply to your email if they want, without having to go and look up the report.
You can manipulate bugs using the email interface. This involves sending and email to
firstname.lastname@example.org with a certain format. The message is then processed, and the instructions in it are executed.
The full documentation on how to do this is at http://www.debian.org/Bugs/server-control and is good for a reference.
A sample email might look like
#only consider bugs that are assigned to apt package apt #change the severity of a bug severity 12345 normal #reassign a bug reassign 12345 dpkg #stop processing commands stop
The comments are optional and only used here to try and illustrate what is happening. The stop command is useful so that the server doesn't process any more of the email and get confused.
If you wish to close a bug report (normally only the submitter or the maintainer do this), you can send an email to
email@example.com and include a Version: pseudo-header that tells the system in what version the bug was fixed. e.g.
To: firstname.lastname@example.org Version: 1.2.3 This is fixed in the latest upload. Thanks for your patience.
The version is used so that it is possible to track when a bug was opened and closed, so that it is known which versions a given bug applies to.
If you discover a bug that has been closed, but re-occurs in a later version, you can send an email with a found command to
email@example.com (see above), e.g.
found 1234 1.2.4 stop I have found this in version 1.2.4, it occurs in the same conditions as before.
You should only do this if it is the same bug though. Submit a new one if you find a new bug.
There are many other things you can do with the BTS. I will let you figure out how to use them. The documentation at http://www.debian.org/Bugs/ covers most of them.