Automating the creation of docker images
Posted by Steve on Sun 5 Jan 2014 at 22:57
In our previous introduction to docker we demonstrated how to create images, and manipulate them. That was useful but not as useful as the use of "Dockerfiles", which allow you to automatically build your own images.
In our previous article we used two images:
- An image which was pulled from the internet.
- An image which we created ourselves via debootstrap.
What we're going to do now is start from our debootstrap image and automate the creation of a system which will run ssh. The resulting image can be further extended in the future to run additonal services - and we'll demonstrate that by adding memcached to it, giving an image with both services running.
To get started save the following to the file Dockerfile.runit:
# # Simple dockerfile for an ssh + server. # # Build it like so: # # root@host~# docker build -t=steve/runit - < Dockerfile.runit # # Launch the generated image like so: # # root@host~# docker run -d -p 2222:22 steve/runit # # Connect like so, with the root password being "mypasswd". # # $ ssh -p 2222 root@localhost # # Steve # -- # # # From this base-image / starting-point # FROM debootstrap/wheezy # # Authorship # MAINTAINER firstname.lastname@example.org # # Update apt # RUN apt-get update -q -q RUN apt-get upgrade --yes --force-yes # # Install utitiles # RUN apt-get install less sudo screen --yes --force-yes # # Install runit # RUN apt-get install runit --yes --force-yes # # Install SSH # RUN apt-get install openssh-server openssh-client --yes --force-yes # # Setup a root password; simple enough to remember, but hard enough that # it won't be cracked immediately. (ha!) # RUN echo "root:mypasswd" | chpasswd # # Expose the SSH port # EXPOSE 22 # # Now make sure that runit will launch SSHD, via runit. # # NOTE: Remember runit will launch /etc/service/sshd/run # RUN mkdir /etc/service/sshd RUN /bin/echo -e '#!/bin/sh' > /etc/service/sshd/run RUN /bin/echo -e 'exec /usr/sbin/sshd -D' >> /etc/service/sshd/run # # Make sure our run-script is executable. # RUN chown root.root /etc/service/sshd/run RUN chmod 755 /etc/service/sshd/run # # Finally launch runit. # ENTRYPOINT ["/usr/sbin/runsvdir-start"]
Once you've done that you can create a new image, which will be called steve/runit by exectuing "docker build". The build-process reads the specified file, and executes the commands from it.
As you can infer from the example there are several things you can do in these Dockers - run commands, expose ports, etc. There is a complete list of valid commands listed on the docker website.
For the moment we'll gloss over the details and start the image-creation process:
root@shelob:~# docker build -t=steve/runit - < Dockerfile.runit Uploading context 3.072 kB Step 1 : FROM debootstrap/wheezy ---> 9b1b1f218cb1 Step 2 : MAINTAINER email@example.com ---> Running in aa3f259416a5 ---> 375bea46d0e5 Step 3 : RUN apt-get update -q -q .. Step 15 : ENTRYPOINT ["/usr/sbin/runsvdir-start"] ---> Running in c3038f9ebb9f ---> 8e55370ca54a Successfully built 8e55370ca54a
If all goes smoothly you'll find that when you run "docker images" you have a new image which is named steve/runit like so:
root@shelob:# docker images REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID CREATED VIRTUAL SIZE steve/runit latest 8e55370ca54a 35 seconds ago 384.3 MB debootstrap/wheezy latest 9b1b1f218cb1 2 minutes ago 218.5 MB
Now we can launch it, forwarding port 1022 to the ssh deamon which will listen on port 22:
root@shelob:~# docker run -d -p 1122:22 steve/runit 827021b6c06cc0b508edf84a907d4b996d972e084471a39b7acbda25e2ed5a3d
Does it work? Let us find out:
root@shelob:~# ssh -p 1122 root@localhost The authenticity of host '[localhost]:1122 ([::1]:1122)' can't be established. ECDSA key fingerprint is a0:25:4f:e5:47:88:fe:c0:78:66:cb:a2:c1:cb:2f:a5. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes Warning: Permanently added '[localhost]:1122' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts. root@localhost's password: Linux shelob 3.2.0-4-amd64 #1 SMP Debian 3.2.51-1 x86_64 ...
NOTE: The root password is mypasswd, which was set in the Dockerfile.runit we fed to the build-process.
We've managed to achieve the creation of a new image, running ssh, in a roundabout fashion, and now I can reveal why we did that - The docker tool, as we say last time, will only allow a single process to be specified as the startup-command.
If we wanted a docker container to run both ssh and nginx, for example, we'd be screwed - we couldn't specify both daemons as the startup command and would instead have to choose one or the other.
To counter that we specified runsvdir-start as our startup-command, from the runit package - and this means we can link in services, via /etc/service, and cause more than one to launch easily.
NOTE: We recently posted a brief introduction to using runit.
As an example we might want to create a docker image which runs both SSH and memcached on startup. Because our dockerfile allows us to specify a starting image to build upon we can just add the new service, memcached, to the image we've just created - we don't need to start from scratch.
Save the following contents to the file Dockerfile.memcache:
# # From this base-image / starting-point # FROM steve/runit # # Authorship # MAINTAINER firstname.lastname@example.org # # Install memcached # RUN apt-get install memcached --yes --force-yes # # Ensure it listens externally # RUN sed -i "/127.0.0.1/d" /etc/memcached.conf # # Expose the memcached port # EXPOSE 11211 # # Now make sure that runit will launch memcached # # NOTE: Remember runit will launch /etc/service/mem/run # RUN mkdir /etc/service/mem RUN /bin/echo -e '#!/bin/sh' > /etc/service/mem/run RUN /bin/echo -e 'exec //usr/bin/memcached -u root -m 128' >> /etc/service/mem/run # # Make sure our run-script is executable. # RUN chown root.root /etc/service/mem/run RUN chmod 755 /etc/service/mem/run # # Finally launch runit. # ENTRYPOINT ["/usr/sbin/runsvdir-start"]
Using this file we can now build a new image:
root@shelob:~# docker build -t=steve/memssh - < Dockerfile.memcache
The end result will be a system which runs both SSH and memcached, if we forward both sets of ports when we launch it:
root@shelob:~# docker run -d -p 11211:11211 -p 1234:22 steve/memssh
Once you've launched it you'll see that port 11211 is forwarded to the memcached instance on the guest and port 1234 is forwarded to the SSH port. The end result is we've built a guest-image which is running two services, based on the ssh-only image we'd created previously.
This concludes our coverage of docker - but if you use it for interesting things your submissions are welcome.